Technical Papers/Protocols


Note: Foldscope is not currently approved for diagnostics applications in human health

Evaluating the performance of a low-cost mobile phone attachable microscope in cervical cytology
A. Naqvi, N. Manglik, E. Dudrey, C. Perry, Z. D. Mulla & J. L. Cervantes BMC Women's Health, Mar 25 2020

A novel screening method for potential naringinase producing microorganisms
S. V. Patil, S. H. Koli, B. V. Mohite, R. P. Patil, R. R. Patil, H., P. Borase, V. S. Patil - Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry,Jan 16 2019

Smartphone‐based clinical diagnostics: towards democratization of evidence‐based health care
I. Hernández‐Neuta, F. Neumann, J. Brightmeyer, T. Ba Tis, N. Madaboosi, Q. Wei, A. Ozcan, M. Nilsson - Journal of Internal Medicine, August 6, 2018

Implementación del Foldscope como dispositivo de diagnóstico de cáncer cervical: un estudio de verificación y evaluación
Moya-Salazar J, Bruno M, Rojas-Zumaran V, Bhamla S, Prakash M - Revista Latinoamericana de Patología Clínica y Medicina de Laboratorio Jul-Sep, 2016

Frugal innovation in bioengineering for the detection of infectious diseases
AK Chavali, R Ramji - Springer Publishing (textbook), 2018

Mobile-phone and handheld microscopy for neglected tropical diseases
J Rajchgot, JT Coulibaly, J Keiser - PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, July 6, 2017 

Mobile phone and handheld microscopes for public health applications
II Bogoch, J Lundin, NC Lo, JR Andrews - The Lancet, August, 2017

“Smart diagnosis” of parasitic diseases by use of smartphones
MA Saeed, A Jabbar - Journal of Clinical Microbiology, January, 2018 

Application of Mobile Phone-Based Portable Microscopy in Clinical Histopathology: A Feasibility Study ASM Waliullah, International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research, Vol. 4, no. 2, Apr. 2018, pp. 16-20

Feasibility Study on Blood Cell Counting Using Mobile Phone-Based Portable Microscope                   ASM Waliullah, International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research, Vol. 4, no. 3, July 2018, pp. 76-79

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Parasitology
BS Pritt -  Springer Publishing (textbook) November 10, 2018 

Diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection with Handheld Microscopy in Lao People's Democratic Republic
II Bogoch, S Sayasone, Y Vonghachack - The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene January 6, 2016

Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infection with a mobile phone-mounted foldscope and a reversed-lens CellScope in Ghana      
Ephraim RKD, Duah E, Cybulski JS, Prakash M, D'Ambrosio MV, Fletcher DA, Keiser J, Andrews JR, Bogoch II - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene April 27. 2015

Patterns of Frugal Innovation in Healthcare
H Arshad, M Radić, D Radić - Technology Innovation Management Review, April 2018  

New digital technologies for the surveillance of infectious diseases at mass gathering events
E.O.Nsoesie, S.A.Kluberg, S.R.Mekaru, M.S.Majumder, K.Khan, S.I.Hay, J.S.Brownstein - Clinical Microbiology and Infection, February 2015 

Animal Health

Evaluation of Foldscope, a paper-based origami microscope useful for taxonomic identification of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks
S G Parada-Sánchez, C G Meléndez-Salcido, R R Hernández-Castaños, S R Prado-Ávila, J R A Gallegos - Acta Universitaria Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal October 15, 2018

Trypanosomiasis challenge estimation using the diminazene aceturate (Berenil) index in Zebu in Gabon
B. G. A. Cossic, B Adjahoutonon, P. Gloaguen, G.L. Dibanganga, G. Maganga, P. Leroy, E. T. MacLeod, K. Picozzi -  Tropical Animal Health and Production, February 14, 2017


Under the Foldscope: Relatively inexpensive tool for understanding down-to-earth applications in plant sciences
N Sundari Devi, Thoudam Santosh Singh, Senjam Jinus S, Sukham Joybi Singh, Tracila Meinam, Lourembam Sanajaoba Singh, Mutum Seityavhani Devi, O Premila Chanu, RK Imotomba Singh and Thiyam Jefferson Singh. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2019.

Foldscope-based methods to detect in-tissue antioxidant activity and secondary metabolites in pollen and stomata of Lantana camara
Sharma AD. Research & Reviews in Biotechnology & Biosciences. 2019

Foldscope based methods to detect in-tissue antioxidant activity and secondary metabolites in pollen and stomata of Lantana camara
P Nischal, AD Sharma  - Research & Reviews in Biotechnology & Biosciences January 1, 2019

Assessment of agro biodiversity through the Foldscope. Plant Science and Natural Medicines
Diwan J, Chikkanaragund K, Suma TC, Mahadevaswamy YS, Amaresh PR, Badariprasad, Lokesh R. Journal of Agricultural Science and Botany. 2018

Interpretation Of Physical Properties Like Crystallanity Of Maize Starch Powder Effectively By Foldscope.
S Bhosale - International Journal of Pharmaceutics & Drug Analysis September 29, 2018


A low-cost do-it-yourself microscope kit for hands-on science education
Z Grier, MF Soddu, N Kenyatta, SA Odame, J Sanders, L Wright, F Anselmi - SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications September 14, 2018 

Developing Tools for STEM Education: The Foldscope, a Very Inexpensive Monocular Microscope for Biological Research.
F Denaro, M Gabriel, A Noe, S Nyaga - Microscopy and Microanalysis, August, 2018

Every Child in the World Should Carry a Microscope in Their Pocket
M Prakash - Microscopy and Microanalysis, August, 2018 

Service-Learning through Student Generated Tutorial Videos
A Schmitz, N Conklin, Q Aoh - American Society for Engineering Education April 2018

Foldscopes: An Unassuming Technology with a Big Impact
L Marcus - Dordt Voice, Fall 2017

A Low-Cost Bio-Imaging and Incubation System
E Bernitt, C Oettmeier, D Henrichs, H-G Döbereiner - EAI International Conference on Bio-inspired Information and Communications Technologies December 3, 2016

Doing is understanding: science fun in India
A.P. Singh, A. Gupta, R. Gulvady, A. Mhamane, T. E. Saunders - Physics Education, September 29, 2015 

Sanitation And Hygiene 

The Development of an Innovative One Health Sanitation Science Fair to Cultivate Change Agent Capacity Among Pastoralist Youth in Rural Tanzania
S Bastien, E Hetherington, K Williams, J Hatfield, M Manyama-  Chapter in book: Youth as Architects of Social Change December 13, 2017

Youth-driven innovation in sanitation solutions for Maasai pastoralists in Tanzania: Conceptual framework and study design
S Bastien, E Hetherington, J Hatfield, S Kutz - Global Journal of Health Education and Promotion October 2015

Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in …
E Hetherington, M Eggers, J Wamoyi, J Hatfield, M Manyama, S Kutz and S Bastien - BMC Public Health February 7, 2017 

Ensayos de corte directo (Parte A) para caracterización de subrasantes blandas de baja capacidad portante durante el proceso de falla al corte registrado por …
JL Sarmiento Escalante, F Buitrago Melo - Universidad Militar Nueva Granada September 18, 2018

Public Health And Awareness

Microscopio simple. Mucho más que una simple lupa
A del Mazo Vivar - Revista Eureka sobre Enseñanza y Divulgación de las Ciencias December 26, 2018 

Sustainability value creation in frugal contexts to foster Sustainable Development Goals
MG Arnold - Business Strategy and Development, December 18, 2018

Humanitarian Innovation+ Medicine: Defining the Innovation Process
KW Ramadurai, SK Bhatia - Chapter in book: Reimagining Innovation in Humanitarian Medicine December 7, 2018

Reimagining Innovation in Humanitarian Medicine: Engineering Care to Improve Health and Welfare
KW Ramadurai - Springer Publishing Textbook, December 7, 2019


New records of species of Metalutzia (Diptera: Culicidae) from Manipur, India
BD Moirangthem, DC Singh - International Journal of Mosquito Research July 4, 2018 

Two Armigeres species of Manipur, the easternmost Northeast India
BD Moirangthem, DC Singh - International Journal of Mosquito Research July 6, 2018

New records of Culex (Culex) pipiens Linn. from Manipur India
BD Moirangthem, DC Singh - International Journal of Mosquito Research November 2, 2018 

Crowdsourcing Biological Specimen Identification: Consumer technology applied to health-care access
JR Carvalko, C Morris - IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine January 2015

The mouse lemur, a genetic model organism for primate biology, behavior, and health
C Ezran, C J Karanewsky, J L Pendleton, A Sholtz, M R Krasnow, J Willick, A Razafindrakoto, S Zohdy, M A Albertelli and M A Krasnow - Genetics June 1, 2017

Machine Learning  

Using Deep Learning for Segmentation and Counting within Microscopy Data 
CX Hernández, MM Sultan, VS Pande - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition February 28, 2018 


10,000 Reasons Why You Should Have A Microscope
Richard L. Howey - Personal Website, 2018

Foldscope: A paper microscope you can attach to your smartphone
M Anderson - IEEE Spectrum November 11, 2018

Open Source 3D‐printed focussing mechanism for cellphone‐based cellular microscopy
YK Jawale, U Rapol, CA Athale - Journal of Microscopy November 12, 2018

Compact microscopy systems with non-conventional optical techniques
T Kamal - PhD Thesis 2018

A New Course on Sustainable Product Development for Low Resource Settings
P Singh - 9th Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development June, 2018

Microscopy & Microanalysis 2018
Y Picard - Microscopy Today, May 8 2018

Foldscope: An innovative microscope
A Mohan - The National Medical Journal of India September 1, 2015

The Foldscope and its gemological applications
K Pleatman - Gems & Gemology Spring, 2015

Frugal science: A physicist view on tackling global health and education challenges
M Prakash - 2018 

based controllable illumination for multi-mode microscopy
S Kaur, R McGorty - 2019

Cost hurdles to open access publishing: A citizen scientist perspective
W Ng - 2017

Corporate and Grassroot Frugal Innovation: A Comparison of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Strategies
L Wohlfart, M Bünger, C Lang-Koetz, and F Wagner - 2016

A Conversation with Manu Prakash
M Pandika - 2017

Gen X: A Generation That Can Help Save the Planet?
R Baskin, C Sommer - 2017 

Microscopios de Papel Plegable
M Montiel-Herrera - 2016

The two faces of frugal innovation-bridging gaps to foster successful innovation strategies
L Wohlfart, M Bünger, C Lang-Koetz, and F Wagner - 2015 

Funding Frugal Innovation in Global Health: Philanthropy, Aid, and Industry
R Neal -  2018 

Implementation of a global humanitarian outreach experience by partnering engineering, business, and high-tech nursing education with a non-governmental
V Carlson-Oehlers ; P J Jung ; B A Cohen - 2017 

A high-speed microscopy approach to single-molecule studies of eukaryote signal transduction
EG Hedlund - 2016

The do‐it‐yourself movement as a source of innovation in biotechnology–and much more
V de Lorenzo, M Schmidt - 2017

Anthelmintic drug discovery: into the future
TG Geary, 2015

A Flexible and Economical Field Microscope
G Shipley, R Hoelter - 2015

Stratégies frugales pour la fabrication d'instruments scientifiques basés sur la photonique à coût abordable
F Piuzzi - 2015

From Diagnostics to Donkeys: Analytical Chemists Easing World Poverty
R Airmet - 2016 

Impresión 3D de estructuras cardiacas: Caso de innovación frugal en sector salud
V Arias, J Contreras-Velásquez, J Chacón, M Vera, Y Huerfano, M Graterol-Rivas, S Wilches-Duran, J Rojas, Carlos Garicano, M Chacín, V Bermúdez - 2015

Dominique Bergmann
D Bergmann - 2018

A people's science
NR Record - 2017

Business models for sustainable innovation–an empirical analysis of frugal products and services
E Rosca, M Arnold, JC Bendul - 2017 

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
R Haidar -  2016

Microscopy: a very short introduction
TD Allen - 2015

From Animaculum to single molecules: 300 years of the light microscope
A J M Wollman, R Nudd, E G Hedlund, M C Leake - 2015

Innovation and shortage: The Yin and Yang of the health sector
K Eggleston - 2018

printr: Exploring the Potential of Paper-based Tools in Low-resource Settings
J Chen, A Abouzied, D Hutchful, Joy Ming, Alshita Ghosh - 2016 

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